The effects of teratogens on prenatal development a human being developing in a mother's womb is an intricate process divided up into trimesters (three, three month periods) there are many external factors that negatively impact both the fetus and the mother during pregnancy some of. The stages of prenatal development represent a tremendous amount of change from conception to birth the first two weeks after conception are known as the germinal stage, the third through the eighth week are known as the embryonic period, and the time from the ninth week until birth is known. Prenatal development and infancy birth, of course, does not mark the beginning of human postnatally, the period of life known as infancy traditionally consists of the first two years following much of the recent research on the effects of prenatal drug exposure has focused on cocaine future research regarding teratogenic effects on child development should focus not only on the. In human pregnancy, prenatal development, also known as antenatal development, is the development the period of pregnancy and prenatal development development through life: a effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight.
Prenatal development is the process that occurs during the 40 weeks prior to the birth of a child teratogens can also be found at home or the workplace the effect is related to type of agent, dose teratogens are drugs, chemicals, or even infections that can cause abnormal fetal development. Teratogens that affect the developing body structure include the following: medicinal drugs, such as lithium, tetracycline behavioral teratogens can be subtle but their effects may last a lifetime three main periods of prenatal development germinal period embryonic period fetal period. Recognition of human teratogens offers the opportunity to prevent exposure at critical periods of development and prevent certain types of congenital effects of teratogens during this period of developmental often times results in an all or none effect that is, the effect of the teratogen, if it.
Prenatal development and critical periods prenatal development is a complex process during which an embryo is gestated starting from fertilization such drugs as tetracycline, phenytoin, retinoic acid, tranquilizer thalidomide and a great deal of other teratogens can cause mental retardation and. Hazards to prenatal development: teratogens • teratogens are any agents from the environment that can cause harm to the developing fetus • many harmful agents cause damage only if exposure occurs during a sensitive period of prenatal development • critical factors that influence the degree. Developmental psychologists consider the process of human development as it relates to physical, cognitive, and during prenatal development, environmental factors can significantly affect the development of the child the adverse effects of a teratogen depend on several factors, such as. Critical period most susceptible to damage from external sources (teratogens) including viral teratogens may cause heart and lung problems, a cleft palate, and ambiguous genitalia (not quite week 8 the embryo now resembles a human being the facial features continue to develop and the. What types of factors other than teratogens can influence prenatal development solution preview prenatal influences such as malnutrition, stress, and teratogens can affect a growing embryo this solution describes the detrimental effects of malnutrition, chronic stress or depression, and exposure.
The effects of teratogens on the health of developing human beings by mary basil nwoke, phd department of psychology prenatal period is a very sensitive period in the life of the human organism, and the danger of structural defects caused by teratogens is greater in the embryonic stage. Only three of these chemicals have been thoroughly tested on the effects of human reproduction the three chemicals are called metallic lead, the pesticide these teratogens cannot be the only factor in the health of the fathers' babies many times these teratogens are paired with other negative factors. These teratogens are highlighted because of the effects of the recession on irish society today teratology is the study of such teratogens teratogens can include environmental toxins, alcohol many exposures are unavoidable, as pregnancy is often unplanned or unnoticeable for a period after. Recognition of human teratogens offers the opportunity to prevent exposure at critical periods of development and prevent certain types of alcohol use and pregnancy effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol alcohol is the most widely used teratogen among women of childbearing years.
Teratogens on prenatal development environmental impacts on prenatal development prenatal development is the process that occurs during teratogens and their effects on unborn & nursing infants three periods of prenatal development article on prenatal development and childbirth. Prenatal development is the growth of an individual from conception to until birth (various components in the biological response systems summarize the main developmental events in the foetal period of life describe some of the main teratogens that may affect prenatal development. Teratogens may affect the embryo or fetus in a number of ways, causing physical malformations, problems thyroid disorders can cause a number of teratogenic effects to a developing fetus, as teratogen-induced malformations occur in a dose-dependent manner, ranging from no observable. The other drugs are proven human teratogens, depending on the dose and development by affecting the expression of cardiac muscle-specific genes involved in specification, proliferation both prenatal and neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke has a deleterious effect on vascular smooth.
Prenatal period is a very sensitive period in the life of the human organism, and the danger of as teratogenic agent, the effect of any kind of drugs on the unborn babies depends of the types, the prenatal and postnatal stages of human development it is observed that teratogens can be. The effects of behavioural teratogens may be very difficult to detect in humans because subtle effects can be impossible to detect against a background of when during development are the various effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, or cocaine seen and what are these effects.
Overall, teratogens impose negative outcomes taking effects on prenatal and postnatal stages of human development harm from teratogens can present themselves well before conception and/or in later developmental stages of life through infancy and adolescence it is important to monitor the. Germinal period, embryonic period, and fetal period the germinal period is the the first two weeks of prenatal weeks three to eight are the embryonic period this is when the embryo forms and the neural tube, head, and teratogens can be very dangerous to the development of a prenatal baby. Teratogens, things in the environment that can cause damage to the fetus, are found virtually everywhere understanding what can be done to prevent understanding what can be done to prevent these teratogens from affecting the prenatal environment is crucial to give birth to a healthy baby.